Under the premise of ensuring the safety and environmental protection of mechanical products, the high productivity, high quality of the equipment, and the ability to reduce labor intensity have always been the three major goals of people's pursuit. The continuous innovation, development, improvement and renewal of any mechanical product is always accompanied by the development trajectory of printing machinery.
1. With axis, without axis, CNC
In order to maintain the synchronization and regular movement between the units, the basic characteristics of the drive are: the power source drives the transmission elements of each unit through a long shaft, and then drives the execution elements of the equipment through the transmission elements to complete the equipment input 3. Output task. This is the traditional "shaft drive" of printing machinery and the most basic transmission principle. With the development and application of contemporary CNC technology, the conditions for canceling this long axis have been fully mature, that is, each printing (or function) unit is driven by one or several servo motors, which can also meet the requirements of printing. The industry often refers to "shaftless technology", "shaftless drive", "electronic shaft drive" or "independent drive" as the concept.
From the perspective of standard specifications, the reference to "shaftless" transferred from a shafted drive is not scientific enough, and people in the circle understand that other industries sound like a monk. Therefore, I suggest that it is better to call it "CNC technology".
As we all know, the largest in China's machinery manufacturing industry is the automobile manufacturing industry, which reflects the comprehensive technical level of the machinery manufacturing industry, high-volume production programs and the pursuit of maximum profits, and the production process has been highly automated. At present, a large proportion of CNC machine tools, machining centers, and FMS (flexible machining systems) are facing the automotive market. The state-priority-supported machinery manufacturing industry also has key equipment and machine tool industries, which reflect China's ability and technical level to provide equipment to defense, aviation, shipbuilding, automotive, power generation and other seal industries. These DC servo motors are the development process of AC servo motors. Modern machine tools have gone through programming to achieve automatic machining of more than three coordinate axes of CNC machine tools-machining center machine tool automatic tool change processing-the first generation of FMS (the use of exchange worktables to achieve automatic flexible processing of multiple devices)-the second generation FMS (Automatic Stereoscopic Library and Automated Flexible Processing of Multiple Devices)-The third generation of FMS (Automatic Stereoscopic Library is cancelled and industrial robots are used to automate the entire processing process). The common features of these three generations of FMS flexible systems are. While realizing the human ideals of unmanned chemical plants' CNC technology is widely used, another trend in the development of CNC machine tools is the emergence of composite machine tools. The processing range of machine tools has been further expanded, resulting in composite machining of turning, milling, boring, drilling and grinding. In the center, the technological process of parts processing is greatly shortened. Some entrepreneurs boldly put forward: one person, one compound machine tool is one factory, one car engine box assembly, all milling, boring, drilling, expanding, tapping, etc. can be completed on one car and milling machining center. Car and other processes, a flame CNC cutting machine can manufacture a small bridge.
The technological development of printing machinery and equipment is bound to follow this path. Since the earliest invented engraving printing by humans, to the invention of movable type printing technology by Pidang 4 and the metal type letterpress printing machine of KÃ¶nigsbauer in Germany, it has also experienced hundreds of years of improvement before reaching the advanced level of contemporary printing machines. . Take the web printing machine as an example, review the history of modern science and technology development. A similar conclusion can be drawn. In the early 1930s, sheet-fed letterpress printing machines had become the main force in the printing industry. Due to the discontinuous printing process, the increase in printing speed was limited by the structure of the equipment, and the increase in speed was restricted. A continuous printing press appeared , To greatly increase the printing speed. The power source of the sheet-fed printing press is a mechanical inorganic variable speed mechanism. Most of the equipment uses slip motors. The power source of the web printing press is powerful. Stepless speed regulation requires the use of a new power source. DC motor and SCR speed control. After realizing the automation of the printing process, this equipment has successively solved the automation of paper control, folding, paper transfer, paper collection, registration, plate-up, cleaning and other operations. However, the web printing machine is still one or two parallel power sources, and a long shaft drives the realization of various movements and functions of the entire device.
In the late 1990s of our country, the frequency conversion speed regulation technology was mature. Printing machinery widely used AC motors and frequency converters for speed regulation. Following this, DC speed regulation and slip motor speed regulation were eliminated. Driving the long shaft is still the traditional structure of this equipment. In the mid-20th century, the numerical control technology that has been widely used in the machine tool industry began to attract the control system of printing machinery. It is the first to be used in web printing presses. After entering the 21st century, foreign web printing presses no longer use traditional power sources, and generally use numerical control systems to replace traditional long-axis transmission, which is the printing machinery manufacturing industry. "Shaftless Technology". In recent years, this technology has been applied to printing equipment such as web gravure printing machines, saddle stitch binding machines, form machines, flexographic printing machines, sheet-fed paper feeders, etc. The application of CNC technology in China has just begun. Only a few companies have launched prototypes. The systems used are all supplied by foreign countries. The gap is larger than that of foreign companies, and there is also a considerable gap compared with the domestic machine tool industry.
Bringing CNC systems to printing machinery will bring the following advantages:
1. Using the CNC system, the way of connecting the whole machine with a long axis will be changed to the way of driving by a single unit separately, and the realization of some functions is also completed by independent motors. The structure of the equipment is greatly simplified, not only the long shaft is eliminated, but also a large number of structural parts in the transmission process are eliminated, which greatly reduces the cost of the equipment.
2. The long axis is eliminated, making each unit relatively independent and self-contained, and the connection of each unit is replaced by a virtual electronic axis, which brings convenient conditions for large-scale assembly of the assembly line. Changes in production methods will also change the online test run to a single-unit test run to shorten the equipment production cycle.
3. Make each unit relatively independent and self-contained. It is possible for users to purchase equipment according to their individual needs. Printing machinery enterprises can overcome the traditional production organization method of formulating production plans according to the needs of users, release plans according to units, and produce parts according to units to standardize and generalize products As the level increases, the expansion of printing machinery products and the expansion of the functions of printing machinery products will become possible.
4. In addition to the numerical control system used for the transmission, other functions of the printing machinery can also be realized by the numerical control system, such as paper tension, printing register, combination of multiple printing methods, cutting, die cutting, electronic cam, clutch pressure, ink Balance etc.
5. The biggest highlight of the drupa printing exhibition in 2004 was the launch of JDF fully automated workflow. It connects the pre-press, printing and post-press together in a standard form, so that the entire printing process is completed automatically. JDF is also a language, and equipment from different manufacturers can be connected into a production line through this language to complete the same task. Full automation of the printing process, the entire transmission system must be a numerical control system.
6. Another advantage of using a CNC system is to achieve complete flexibility in the printing process, which units can be started and stopped at will according to the personality requirements of the printed product, no mechanical clutch, no cam replacement, and front and reverse vehicles can be opened as needed. In the previous version, several units can be used in parallel to reduce the time for the previous version and so on.
7. The timing of the printing machinery adopting the numerical control system is mature. Some CNC technology companies have achieved continuous power output of up to 375 kilowatts, AC grid voltage of 380-480 volts, maximum rated torque of 600 Newton meters, maximum transmission ratio I: 65000 to 65000: 1, registration accuracy can reach 1 / 4000000 revolutions, precise adjustment of electronic gears up to 32 bits, these requirements can fully meet the technical requirements of printing machinery products. [next]
2. Three major scientific and technological achievements in the contemporary printing industry
1. CTP technology revolution. The biggest highlight of contemporary printing technology development is CTP.
CTcP digital technology. With the advent and development of digital printing machines, digital direct plate-making machines, digital proofers, and digital inkjet printers, traditional plate-making equipment and traditional proofing equipment are facing elimination, and the advertising and rapid printing markets have been strongly impacted. Traditional printing equipment used for mass production has also faced unprecedented challenges. A number of machine-based plate printing machines, plateless printing machines, laser imaging printing machines, and inkjet printing machines have been industrialized and have a certain market share.
2. The digital workflow continues to develop CIP3.
The emergence of digital workflows such as CIP4 and 7DF has transferred the digital information of the design of the desktop color system to the plate-making equipment, and then to the adjustment system of the printing equipment. The drupa exhibition in 2004 will continue to send these designed digital information to the Post-press delivery, the whole production process of printed matter is integrated into one, to achieve resource sharing, save a lot of intermediate links, become the highlight of the new exhibition.
3. CNC technology is the development direction of printing equipment. The first two scientific and technological achievements are a revolution in printing technology, and the latter scientific and technological achievements are a revolution in the printing machinery manufacturing industry. It can also be called to transform the electrical control of traditional printing machinery and equipment transmission into digital control. At present, the main companies that provide CNC systems for printing machinery companies are German Siemens, German Dr. Rexroth and Lenz, and Yaskawa of Japan. In addition, Fanuc of Japan has not entered the printing machinery industry, and there are some foreign machine tool factories. For example, Japan's Daizen, Mazak, Mitsubishi, and Hitachi all have their own CNC systems. There are more than ten CNC manufacturing companies in China, mainly providing CNC systems for machine tool factories. The main CNC system suppliers are: Beijing Aerospace CNC, Beijing KND Company, Shenyang Lantian CNC, Shanghai Open CNC, Nanjing Tsinghua General Motors and Xinfangda CNC, Tope in Chengdu and Guangtai CNC, Shenzhen Zhongweixing CNC, etc. There are no manufacturers supporting printing machinery, and cooperation in this area should be strengthened.
In foreign countries, numerical control technology has been widely used. The web printing machine adopts DC speed regulation and frequency conversion speed regulation equipment. It is rare that only a few companies in China have just launched prototypes using this technology, which is still far from the process of industrialization. Great distance.
3. Speed â€‹â€‹up the automation process
Since the invention of printing machinery, in the long-term development process, it has gone from manual to mechanized. In modern times, in order to further improve work efficiency and reduce labor intensity, it has taken the path of gradual automation. Automation can be divided into the following Stages:
1. Semi-automated stage-The main operation of the printed matter is mechanized, and the printed matter still needs to be manually input and output. Such as tiger mouth die cutting machine, bronzing machine, screen printing machine, etc.
2. In the stand-alone automation stage, the entire production process of the printed matter is mechanized. The person is only responsible for the adjustment of the printing quality, replacement of working tools and auxiliary materials (such as substrates, plates, ink, knives, etc.) Related equipment, such as printing machines, binding machines, box making machines, packaging and printing equipment of various printing methods, etc.
3. Auxiliary operation automation stage-on the basis of stand-alone automation, the level of auxiliary operation automation continues to increase, such as equipment quality adjustment, automatic paper loading, automatic plate, automatic ink and water. Such as imported web printing presses, high-end sheet-fed printing presses, etc.
4. Online automation stage-on the basis of stand-alone automation, several devices in the printing process are connected together and run automatically, such as saddle stitch binding machine, hardcover linkage line, wireless perfect binding machine, flexo printing machine, etc.
The manual operation procedures that have not yet been mechanized in the printing process in our country include: paper prefabrication, plate release, cleaning of elephant leather, automatic paper feeding and automatic ink feeding, and some small printing companies still use manual collation, manual Folding, manual hardcover, manual insertion, manual bundling, etc.
The level of automation of printing machinery products is low, mainly reflected in: pre-press equipment is in a semi-automatic stage. The printing equipment is in the online automation stage, and the auxiliary operation automation level is low. Most of the post-press equipment is in the stand-alone automation stage, and there are few online automation equipment, which are mainly imported.
Printing machinery and equipment are facing the challenges of major foreign manufacturers, and their market share in China continues to grow, especially high-end equipment is mainly imported. How do we respond to this reality, especially when the current wave of application of CTP and digital workflow is surging, I believe that we must pay attention to the development trend of CTP technology and digital workflow, and actually promote the widespread application of CNC technology It is imperative to work hard to improve the automation level of products and solve the backward technical status of domestic equipment with high labor intensity, large number of personnel and quality control by people.
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